Chapter – 5: Environment its resources and their Conservation | Chapter Solution Class 10

WhatsApp
Book Name : Life Science And Environment
Subject : Life Science
Class : 10 (Madhyamik)
Publisher : Calcutta Book House (P) Ltd
Unit Name : Environment its resources and their Conservation (5th Chapter)

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1

Which one is nitrogen-fixing bacteria?

  1. E. coli
  2. Bacillus
  3. Rhizobium
  4. Helicobacter

Answer

Rhizobium

Question 2

Free living bacteria are

  1. Clostridium
  2. Rhizobium
  3. Helicobacter
  4. Bacillus

Answer

Clostridium and Bacillus

Question 3

Molecular nitrogen fixing blue green algae are

  1. Oedogonium
  2. Chlorella
  3. Nostoc
  4. Volvox

Answer

Nostoc

Explanation:

Oedogonium, Chlorella, and Volvox are not blue-green algae. They are green algae, which are a different group of photosynthetic organisms.

Nostoc is a genus of blue-green algae that are known for their nitrogen-fixing abilities. Nitrogen fixation is the process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can then be used by plants for growth.

Question 4

Acid rain caused by

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Soil pollution
  4. Sound pollution

Answer

Air pollution

Question 5

Which one is greenhouse gas?

  1. CO2
  2. O2
  3. N2
  4. CH3

Answer

CO2

Question 6

Which one is lung disease?

  1. Gastric
  2. Jaundice
  3. Asthma
  4. None of them

Answer

Asthma

Question 7

Eutrophication is caused by

  1. Water pollution
  2. Air pollution
  3. Soil pollution
  4. Sound pollution

Answer

Water pollution

Question 8

Hypertension, sleep disturbances are caused by

  1. Sound pollution
  2. Air pollution
  3. Water pollution
  4. Soil pollution

Answer

Sound pollution

Question 9

Polluted water-carrying diseases are

  1. Bronchitis
  2. Lung cancer
  3. Cholera
  4. Malaria

Answer

Cholera

Question 10

Biological magnification is caused by

  1. Soil pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Air pollution
  4. Sound pollution

Answer

Water pollution

Question 11

Chest tightness is a symptom of

  1. Bronchitis
  2. Cancer
  3. Asthma
  4. Jaundice

Answer

Asthma

Question 12

Production of large amounts of mucous in

  1. Asthma
  2. Jaundice
  3. Bronchitis
  4. Cancer

Answer

Bronchitis

Question 13

Malignant tumours formed in

  1. Cancer
  2. Asthma
  3. Bronchitis
  4. Jaundice

Answer

Cancer

Question 14

Medicine is the source of

  1. Asbestos
  2. Benzene
  3. Coal tar
  4. Arsenic compound

Answer

Arsenic compound

Question 15

Prostate cancer is caused by

  1. Cadmium compound
  2. Benzene
  3. Asbestos
  4. Coal tar

Answer

None of the above

Question 16

Which one is an exotic plant?

  1. Lantana
  2. Solanum
  3. Hibiscus
  4. Pisum

Answer

Lantana

Question 17

Which one is a mangrove plant?

  1. Ficus
  2. Pisum
  3. Avicennia
  4. cocos

Answer

Avicennia

Explanation

Avicennia is a mangrove plant. Ficus, Pisum, and Cocos are not.

Ficus is a genus of trees, shrubs, and vines that includes the rubber tree, the fig tree, and the fiddle-leaf fig. Pisum is a genus of legumes that includes the pea plant. Cocos is a genus of palms that includes the coconut palm.

Avicennia is a genus of mangrove trees that are found in tropical and subtropical coastal areas around the world. Mangrove trees are adapted to living in saline environments, and they play an important role in protecting coastlines from erosion.

Question 18

In which year, Myers developed hot spots determined by 4 factors

  1. 1988
  2. 1990
  3. 2000
  4. 2001

Answer

1988

Question 19

Which one is the in-situ conservation?

  1. Zoological garden
  2. Botanical garden
  3. Sanctuary
  4. Cryopreservation

Answer

Sanctuary

Question 20

Which one is the ex-situ conservation?

  1. Biosphere reserve
  2. Sanctuary
  3. National park
  4. Botanical garden

Answer

Botanical garden

Question 21

All plants and animals are preserved in their natural habitat in

  1. Sanctuary
  2. National park
  3. Reserve forest
  4. Biosphere reserve

Answer

Sanctuary

Question 22

In which year JFM was started in West Bengal?

  1. 1970
  2. 1971
  3. 1975
  4. 1980

Answer

1971

Question 23

The number of tiger reserves in India is

  1. 26
  2. 27
  3. 25
  4. 20

Answer

27

Question 24

In West Bengal rhinoceros projects found in

  1. Sundarban
  2. Jaldapara
  3. Buxa
  4. None of them

Answer

Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary

Question 25

In India where Asiatic lions are conserved?

  1. Gir
  2. Sundarban
  3. Bhitorkonika
  4. Jaldapara

Answer

Gir

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1

Anabaena lives inside the leaves of ____.

Answer

Azolla

Question 2

Mercury ____ causes disease in man.

Answer

poisoning

Question 3

Carcinoma cancer mainly occurs in ____ tissue.

Answer

epithelial

Question 4

Manas National Park is a biosphere reserve for ____.

Answer

biodiversity

Question 5

The number of hotspots in India is ____.

Answer

34

Mention True or False :

Question 1

Bacillus ramosus is a nitrifying bacteria.

Answer

True

Question 2

DDT is a kind of non-degradable chemical.

Answer

True

Question 3

The logistic growth curve is S-shaped.

Answer

True

Question 4

In Tamil Nadu, Simlipal biosphere reserve is situated.

Answer

False

Question 5

Cryopreservation occurs in – 196º C.

Answer

True

Column matching

Question 

Left Column Right Column
A. Tiger (i) – 196º C.
B. Cryopreservation (ii) BMC
C. Sanctuary (iii) Sundarban
D. PBR (iv) Bethuadahari

Answer

Left Column Right Column
A. Tiger (iii) Sundarban
B. Cryopreservation (i) – 196º C.
C. Sanctuary (iv) Bethuadahari
D. PBR (ii) BMC

Question 

Left Column Right Column
A. Pesticide (i) CFC
B. Weedicide (ii) Asthma
C. Green house gas (iii) Simazine
D. Lung disease (iv) DDT

Answer

Left Column Right Column
A. Pesticide (iv) DDT
B. Weedicide (iii) Simazine
C. Greenhouse gas (i) CFC
D. Lung disease (ii) Asthma

Very Short Answer (VSA) Type Questions :

Question 1

What is the oxide form of nitrogen present in the atmosphere?

Answer

The oxide forms of nitrogen present in the atmosphere are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Question 2

Name one nitrogen fixing bacteria.

Answer

Rhizobium is one nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Question 3

Give the name of one living heterotrophic bacteria.

Answer

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a living heterotrophic bacteria.

Question 4

What is the function of leghaemoglobin?

Answer

Leghaemoglobin functions as an oxygen carrier in the root nodules of leguminous plants during nitrogen fixation.

Question 5

Mention two non-leguminous angiospermic plants.

Answer

Two non-leguminous angiospermic plants are Sunflower and Maize.

Question 6

Who is the discoverer of the Haber process?

Answer

Fritz Haber is the discoverer of the ‘Haber process.’

Question 7

Give one example of nitrification involving bacteria.

Answer

Ammonia (NH3) oxidation to nitrite (NO2) by Nitrosomonas bacteria is an example of nitrification involving bacteria.

Question 8

Name two denitrifying bacteria.

Answer

Pseudomonas and Paracoccus are two denitrifying bacteria.

Question 9

State one important significance of the nitrogen cycle.

Answer

One important significance of the nitrogen cycle is that it helps in the recycling of nitrogen, making it available for various living organisms.

Question 10

What do you mean by pollutants?

Answer

Pollutants are substances or agents introduced into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to living organisms.

Question 11

What do you mean by SPM?

Answer

SPM stands for Suspended Particulate Matter, which refers to solid and liquid particles suspended in the air.

Question 12

Define algal bloom.

Answer

Algal bloom is the rapid and excessive growth of algae in water bodies, leading to an increase in the algal population.

Question 13

Name two pathogenic organisms which cause water pollution.

Answer

Two pathogenic organisms that cause water pollution are Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Giardia lamblia.

Question 14

Mention the cause of itai-itai disease.

Answer

The cause of itai-itai disease is cadmium poisoning due to the consumption of rice contaminated with high levels of cadmium.

Question 15

What are the greenhouse gases?

Answer

Greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O)

Question 16

Name two pesticides which are used in the agricultural field.

Answer

Two pesticides used in agricultural fields are DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and Glyphosate.

Question 17

State the types of bronchitis.

Answer

Types of bronchitis include acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis.

Question 18

Mention the two symptoms of asthma.

Answer

Two symptoms of asthma are wheezing and shortness of breath.

Question 19

What is neoplasia?

Answer

Neoplasia refers to the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells, leading to the formation of tumours.

Question 20

Mention the source of the arsenic compound.

Answer

The source of arsenic compounds can be natural deposits in the Earth’s crust, industrial activities, or agricultural use.

Question 21

Name one exotic species.

Answer

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one exotic species.

Question 22

Mention two mangrove species in Sundarban.

Answer

Two mangrove species in Sundarbans are Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina.

Question 23

State the main characteristics of the sanctuary.

Answer

The main characteristics of a sanctuary are that it is a protected area for wildlife conservation and usually prohibits any human interference.

Question 24

Give examples in West Bengal and the rest of India of National Park.

Answer

In West Bengal, Sundarbans National Park, and in the rest of India, Jim Corbett National Park are examples of National Parks.

Question 25

Name one site of crocodile conservation.

Answer

Bhitarkanika National Park in Odisha is one site of crocodile conservation.

Short Answer (SA) Type Questions :

Question 1

What is the nitrogen cycle?

Answer

The nitrogen cycle is the natural process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms in the environment, allowing it to be utilized by living organisms.

Question 2

What is biological nitrogen fixation?

Answer

Biological nitrogen fixation is the process by which certain bacteria, known as nitrogen-fixing bacteria, convert atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3) or other nitrogen compounds that can be used by plants and other organisms.

Question 3

What is the role of leghaemoglobin during nitrogen fixation?

Answer

The role of leghaemoglobin during nitrogen fixation is to facilitate the supply of oxygen to nitrogen-fixing bacteria residing in root nodules of leguminous plants, enabling them to perform nitrogen fixation efficiently in the presence of oxygen.

Question 4

What is ammonification?

Answer

Ammonification is the process in which organic nitrogen compounds, such as proteins and nucleic acids, are converted into ammonia (NH3) by decomposer bacteria and fungi during the breakdown of dead plant and animal matter.

Question 5

Define nitrification.

Answer

Nitrification is the biological process in which ammonia (NH3) is converted into nitrite (NO2) and then into nitrate (NO3) by nitrifying bacteria.

Question 6

What is denitrification?

Answer

Denitrification is the biological process in which nitrates (NO3) are converted back into atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) by denitrifying bacteria, completing the nitrogen cycle.

Question 7

What is the significance of the nitrogen cycle?

Answer

The significance of the nitrogen cycle lies in its role in recycling nitrogen, making it available for various living organisms, and maintaining the balance of nutrients in ecosystems.

Question 8

What do you mean by pollution?

Answer

Pollution refers to the introduction of harmful substances or contaminants into the environment, causing adverse effects on living organisms and the ecosystem.

Question 9

What is acid rain?

Answer

Acid rain is rainwater or any form of precipitation that has become acidic due to the presence of pollutants like sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Question 10

What are the SPM?

Answer

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a complex mixture of solid or liquid particles that are suspended in the air. SPM can be either organic or inorganic, and it can range in size from less than 0.1 micrometers to over 100 micrometers.

SPM can come from a variety of sources, including:

  • Vehicle emissions
  • Industrial emissions
  • Construction dust
  • Pollen

Question 11

What is eutrophication?

Answer

Eutrophication is the process of excessive nutrient enrichment, particularly with nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to the rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants in water bodies.

Question 12

Give the definition of biological magnification.

Answer

Biological magnification, also known as biomagnification, is the process by which certain pollutants or toxins become more concentrated in the tissues of organisms at higher levels in the food chain.

Question 13

What is over-population?

Answer

Over-population refers to a situation where the population of a particular species, usually humans, exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment.

Question 14

What do you mean by deforestation?

Answer

Deforestation is the permanent removal of trees and other vegetation from a forest. It is the conversion of forest land to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve the conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use.

Causes of deforestation:

  • Agriculture: Agriculture is the primary cause of deforestation, accounting for about 80% of global deforestation. Forests are cleared to make way for crops, such as soybeans, palm oil, and beef.
  • Logging: Logging is another major cause of deforestation. Trees are harvested for their wood, which is used for a variety of purposes, including construction, papermaking, and fuel.

Question 15

What do you mean by irritative bronchitis?

Answer

Irritative bronchitis refers to the inflammation of the bronchial tubes caused by irritation, leading to symptoms like coughing and difficulty in breathing.

Symptoms of irritative bronchitis:

  • Cough
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath

Question 16

Why cancer is known as a malignant tumour?

Answer

Cancer is known as a malignant tumour because it refers to a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth that can invade and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to surrounding tissues and organs.

Question 17

Define biodiversity.

Answer

Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth, including the variety of species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity. It encompasses the diversity of all living things, including plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms.

Question 18

Give four names of mangrove species in Sundarban.

Answer

Four names of mangrove species in Sundarbans are Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia marina, Sonneratia apetala, and Excoecaria agallocha.

Question 19

What is in-situ conservation?

Answer

In-situ conservation refers to the conservation of species or ecosystems in their natural habitats to protect their genetic diversity and ecological integrity.

Key practices associated with in-situ conservation include:

  1. Establishing Biosphere Reserves: This involves designating specific areas as protected reserves, such as national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, where biodiversity is conserved within its natural habitat.
  2. Habitat Restoration: Efforts are made to restore and rehabilitate degraded or damaged ecosystems to their natural state to support the survival of native species.
  3. Biodiversity Monitoring: Regular monitoring and research are conducted to assess the health and status of the ecosystems and the species they harbour.

Question 20

Give the characteristic features of the biosphere reserve.

Answer

Characteristic features of a biosphere reserve include:

  1. Zonation: Biosphere reserves are typically divided into three zones:
    • Core Zone: This is a legally protected area where human intervention is strictly prohibited to preserve natural ecosystems.
    • Buffer Zone: This zone surrounds the core area and permits limited human activities, research, and environmental education.
    • Transition or Manipulation Zone: This outermost zone allows sustainable human activities and development, with a focus on balancing conservation and development.
  2. Biodiversity Conservation: Biosphere reserves are designed to conserve and protect a wide range of habitats and biological communities, promoting the conservation of biodiversity.
  3. Research and Monitoring: These reserves serve as living laboratories for scientific research and monitoring of ecosystems, species, and environmental processes.

Question 21

What is ex-situ conservation?

Answer

Ex-situ conservation is a conservation strategy that involves the protection of endangered species outside their natural habitats. This technique includes the transfer of genetic material away from their native environment, ensuring the accessibility of germplasm for evaluation and utilization. Common ex-situ methods include seed storage, captive breeding, slow-growth storage, and DNA storage.

Question 22

What is the characteristic of a botanical garden?

Answer

Characteristics of a botanical garden in points:

  1. Diverse Plant Collection: Botanical gardens are known for assembling, rearing, and displaying a wide variety of plants, each typically labelled with its botanical name.
  2. Scientific Focus: These gardens emphasize scientific research and education, aiming to support plant conservation and provide a valuable resource for botanical studies.
  3. Greenhouses and Shaded Houses: Many botanical gardens include greenhouses and shaded houses to create controlled environments for exotic or delicate plant species.

Question 23

Mention the characteristics of cryopreservation.

Answer

Characteristics of cryopreservation in points:

  1. Low-Temperature Storage: Cryopreservation involves cooling biological materials, such as cells, tissues, and organs, to very low temperatures, typically below -130°C (-202°F), to halt metabolic processes and prevent degradation.
  2. Prevention of Ice Formation: Specialized cryoprotectants are used to prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals within the biological sample during freezing, preserving cellular integrity.

Question 24

Define Joint Forest Management (JFM).

Answer

Joint Forest Management (JFM) is a participatory approach in which local communities are involved in the management and protection of forests in collaboration with the government. JFM was started in 1971 in West Bengal at Arabari Forest, West Midnapore.

Question 25

What is PBR?

Answer

PBR stands for People’s Biodiversity Register, which is a documentation of the local biological diversities, including landscape, lifescape, and peoplescape, along with traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity and its use. It is essential for sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity in India.

Long Answer (LA) Type Questions :

Question 1

What is the nitrogen cycle? Briefly describe the nitrogen fixation process.

Answer

The nitrogen cycle is the natural process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms in the environment, allowing it to be utilized by living organisms.

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen cycle involves the following key steps:

  1. Nitrogen fixation:- Free atmospheric nitrogen is chemically inert and cannot be used in pure form by organisms. Hence, it is first converted into nitrates, which can be assimilated by plants. This conversion is carried out by industrial nitrogen fixation (by the manufacturing of ammonium salts or chemical fertilisers) or by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Azotobacter and Rhizobium. This conversion is called bio-fixation of nitrogen or nitrogen fixation. The nitrates are absorbed by plants and utilised by them for making organic matter.
  2. Ammonification:- Animals consume plant matter and break down the nitrogenous compounds of plants during their cell activities. Urea or uric acid excreted by animals and the nitrogenous compounds present in the dead plant matter are converted to ammonium ions by the process of ammonification. Ammonification is carried out by certain putrefying bacteria and fungi. Plants assimilate this ammonium ion or certain bacteria and convert them into nitrate through nitrification.
  3. Nitrification:- Microorganisms like Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter convert ammonia into nitrates by the process of nitrification.
  4. Denitrification:- Decomposers such as Pseudomonas reduce nitrates back into nitrogen or ammonia or some other oxides by the process of denitrification and release free nitrogen back into the atmospheric pool.

Question 2

What are the nitrification and denitrification of the nitrogen cycle?

Answer

  1. Nitrification:- Microorganisms like Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter convert ammonia into nitrates by the process of nitrification.
  2. Denitrification:- Decomposers such as Pseudomonas reduce nitrates back into nitrogen or ammonia or some other oxides by the process of denitrification and release free nitrogen back into the atmospheric pool.

Question 3

What is the relation between human activities and the nitrogen cycle?

Answer

The relation between human activities and the nitrogen cycle can be summarized in simple points:

  1. Human activities, such as the use of fertilizers, increase the amount of nitrogen cycling between the living world and the soil, water, and atmosphere.
  2. Fertilizer application enhances microbial nitrification and denitrification processes, leading to the release of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere.
  3. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas, about 300 times more effective than CO2, contributing to global warming and climate change.
  4. Human-induced nitrogen enrichment in the soil leads to soil acidification, which can affect mycorrhizal communities and alter plant species composition.
  5. In aquatic ecosystems, excessive nitrogen loading can cause downstream freshwater systems’ acidification, leading to aluminium toxicity and the decline of pH-sensitive fish species.

Question 4

What is the effect of noise pollution on humans and animals?

Answer

Effect of noise pollution on humans:

  1. Psychological Health: Unwanted noise can lead to high-stress levels, hypertension, and severe depression in humans.
  2. Physical Health: Noise pollution can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and sleep disturbances, and may contribute to cardiovascular effects.
  3. Annoyance and Irritation: High noise levels can be a cause of annoyance and may lead to panic attacks in some individuals.

Effect of noise pollution on animals:

  1. Nervous System Damage: Noise pollution can damage the nervous system of animals, leading to loss of control over their behaviour.
  2. Disruption of Normal Activity: High-frequency sounds can disturb animals and hamper their normal activities.
  3. Reproduction and Navigation: Noise pollution can have detrimental effects on wild animals, affecting their reproduction and navigation abilities.

Question 5

Briefly describe the effect of air pollution on acid rain and lung diseases. What is greenhouse gases?

Answer

Effect of air pollution on acid rain:

  1. SO2 and NO2 pollutants in the air mix with rainwater, forming acidic precipitation.
  2. Acid rain kills microbes in the soil, reduces biodiversity in lakes and rivers, and damages buildings and monuments.
  3. Acidic rainwater can harm fish eggs, leading to reduced fish populations in lakes.

Effect of air pollution on lung diseases:

  1. Inhaling toxic materials (gases and suspended particles) from polluted air damages lung and respiratory tract cells.
  2. Lung diseases like asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer can develop due to exposure to polluted air.
  3. Children are more vulnerable to the effects of polluted air as they breathe through their mouths more often than adults.

Greenhouse gases: Greenhouse gases are gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that trap and absorb heat energy from the sun, preventing it from escaping back into space.

Question 6

What is the agricultural runoff with respect to water pollution? What are the diseases in humans caused by water pollution?

Answer

Agricultural runoff with respect to water pollution:

  • Agricultural runoff refers to rain, melted snow, or irrigation water from farmland that drains into ponds, lakes, rivers, and coastal waters.
  • It carries pollutants such as soil particles, pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, salts, and nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, leading to water pollution.

Diseases in humans caused by water pollution:

  • Waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and hepatitis can occur due to polluted water consumption.
  • Contaminated water can also cause skin rashes, ear aches, pink eyes, and damage the nervous system when contaminated with insecticides or heavy metals.

Question 7

What are the problems of an ever-increasing population?

Answer

The problems of an ever-increasing population

  1. Over-exploitation and depletion of natural resources.
  2. Deforestation and loss of ecosystems.
  3. Shrinking of agricultural land.
  4. Shortage of freshwater and other essential resources.

Question 8

Describe the reasons behind the loss of biodiversity.

Answer

The reasons behind the loss of biodiversity

  1. Destruction of habitat: Conversion of natural habitats for human settlements, agriculture, and mining, leading to deforestation and fragmentation, disrupting species interactions and reducing populations.
  2. Hunting and Poaching: Commercialization of wildlife killing leads to rapid depletion of species, causing damage to the rainforest ecosystem and potential extinction of certain species.
  3. Global warming and climate change: Pollution causes ozone layer depletion, resulting in climate change, natural disasters, and rising sea levels, impacting sensitive organisms.
  4. Pollution: Pesticide use and other pollutants lead to population decline of sensitive species, affecting fish-eating birds and marine life through lead poisoning, eutrophication, and oil spills.

Question 9

Describe the factors of environmental problems in Sundarban.

Answer

The factors of environmental problems in Sundarban

  • Destruction of mangroves: Loss of specially adapted mangrove plants affects the entire ecosystem, leading to land erosion and habitat destruction due to agricultural expansion and urbanization.
  • Freshwater crisis: Shortage of freshwater in the Sundarbans delta area, leading to floods caused by high tides with saltwater intrusion, impacting vegetation and productivity.
  • Destruction of habitats: The loss of Sundari trees and mangroves shrinks habitats, affecting wildlife habitation, and natural calamities like cyclones and floods further destroy vegetation and freshwater communities.
  • Pollution: Increasing population and use of cars and fossil fuels lead to CO2 emissions and pollution, posing a threat to the Sundarbans ecosystem.

Question 10

Write about the importance of biodiversity.

Answer

The importance of biodiversity are:

  1. Source of food: Biodiversity provides various plants and animals that serve as sources of food for humans, including crops, fruits, livestock, and fish.
  2. Source of drugs and medicines: Many medicines and drugs used for treating diseases are derived from plants and animals, such as penicillin, taxol, and quinine.
  3. Maintenance of ecological balance: Biodiversity plays a crucial role in maintaining ecological balance through interactions between species, nutrient cycling, and oxygen production.
  4. Control of climate: Biodiversity influences climate patterns and contributes to the water cycle, affecting rainfall and agricultural production.

Question 11

What is biological magnification? Briefly mention the effect of soil pollution on humans.

Answer

Biological magnification

Biological magnification is the process by which harmful non-biodegradable substances, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and radioactive substances, increase in concentration at successive levels of a food chain. As organisms consume other organisms, these substances accumulate and become more concentrated in the fatty tissues of higher-level consumers.

Effect of soil pollution on humans:

Soil pollution can have several adverse effects on humans, including:

  1. Contaminated crops: Soil pollution can lead to the uptake of harmful substances by crops, making them unsafe for consumption and posing health risks to humans who eat them.
  2. Groundwater contamination: Pollutants in the soil can leach into groundwater, which is a source of drinking water for many communities, leading to the ingestion of toxic substances.
  3. Health issues: Exposure to contaminated soil can cause various health problems, such as respiratory issues, skin irritations, gastrointestinal problems, and even chronic diseases like cancer.

Question 12

State about the botanical garden and cryopreservation along with their features and examples.

Answer

Botanical Garden:

A botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It serves as a controlled and staffed institution for maintaining a living collection of plants under scientific management for education and research purposes. Some characteristics of botanical gardens include:

  1. Plant Cultivation: Botanical gardens culture and grow various plant species, often featuring specialist plant collections like cacti, succulents, and herb gardens.
  2. Conservation: Threatened plant species are given special care in botanical gardens to preserve and protect them from extinction.

Examples: Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanical Garden, Shibpur (West Bengal) and Empress Garden, Pune (Maharashtra).

Cryopreservation:

Cryopreservation is a process where cells, tissues, or other substances susceptible to damage caused by chemical reactivity or time are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures. The preservation occurs at ultra-low temperatures, typically using liquid nitrogen, to achieve long-term storage without deterioration. Some features of cryopreservation include:

  1. Ultra-Low Temperature: Cryopreservation involves cooling substances to extremely low temperatures, usually around -196°C using liquid nitrogen.
  2. Germplasm Preservation: It is commonly used for preserving germplasm (reproductive material) of plants and animals for extended periods.

Examples: Preservation of plant cells or preservation of animal sperm using cryopreservation techniques.

Question 13

What is the origin and objective of JFM?

Answer

The origin of Joint Forest Management (JFM) can be traced back to 1971 in West Bengal, specifically at Arabari Forest in West Midnapore. The Arabari Forest faced significant damage due to the illegal harvesting of forest products and grazing by the local population. To address this issue, forest department officials decided to involve the local people in the conservation and regeneration of the forest.

The objectives of Joint Forest Management (JFM) can be summarized as follows:

  1. Forest Conservation: The primary objective of JFM is to conserve and protect the forest ecosystem from degradation, illegal activities, and overexploitation of natural resources.
  2. Involvement of Local Communities: JFM aims to involve local communities living in or near the forests in the decision-making process and management of forest resources.
  3. Sustainable Development: JFM promotes sustainable development practices by ensuring the responsible use of forest resources to meet the present needs without compromising the needs of future generations.

Question 14

Mention the process and significance of PBR.

Answer

Process of People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR):

  1. Formation of Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC).
  2. Group meetings with local people to explain the objectives and importance of PBR.
  3. Gathering comprehensive information on local biological diversity and traditional knowledge.
  4. Consultation with local people to document biodiversity information.
  5. BMC prepares the PBR with technical support from State Biodiversity Board.
  6. BMC authenticates the collected data in the PBR.

Significance of People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR):

  1. Documentation of local biodiversity and traditional knowledge.
  2. Empowerment of local communities in biodiversity conservation.
  3. The basis for sustainable development and utilization of biodiversity resources.
  4. Compliance with Biodiversity Act, 2003.
  5. Preservation of traditional knowledge for future generations.
  6. Informed decision-making for conservation efforts.

Question 15

Describe the conservation sites and actions for the conservation of tigers.

Answer

Conservation Sites and Actions for the Conservation of Tigers:

  1. Tiger Reserves: Various National Parks and Sanctuaries have been established as Tiger Reserves to conserve tigers in India.
  2. Project Tiger: The government of India initiated “Project Tiger” to protect and conserve the tiger population in the country.
  3. Implementation: Currently, about 27 Tiger Reserves are actively implementing the Project Tiger initiative across different Indian states.
  4. Forest Management: The Forest Department plays a crucial role in managing and implementing the conservation program for tigers.
  5. Success: Due to effective conservation efforts, the tiger population is showing signs of increase in the Tiger Reserves.

Question 16

Mention the action plan for conservation and the present scenario of the Rhino project.

Answer

Conservation Action Plan for Indian Rhinoceros:

  1. Protection and Surveillance: Enhanced protection measures, including anti-poaching squads, patrolling, and use of modern technology for surveillance.
  2. Habitat Conservation: Preservation and restoration of suitable habitats within National Parks and Sanctuaries.
  3. Community Involvement: Involvement of local communities in conservation efforts, creating awareness, and providing alternative livelihoods to reduce dependence on forest resources.

Present Scenario of Rhino Project:

  1. Rhino population occurs mainly within and around the protected areas like Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park, Jaldapara Forest, and Gorumara Forest.
  2. Poaching remains a significant threat to rhinos, but conservation efforts have helped stabilize their numbers.
  3. Kaziranga National Park has seen a remarkable increase in the rhino population and now houses about 70% of the world’s Indian Rhino population.

Question 17

Describe the action plan for the conservation of ‘Project Red Panda’ and the action plan for the conservation of crocodiles.

Answer

Action Plan for the Conservation of ‘Project Red Panda’:

  1. Habitat Protection: Establishing protected areas, sanctuaries, and national parks in the hilly regions of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal to safeguard the natural habitats of red pandas.
  2. Reforestation and Bamboo Plantations: Focusing on reforestation efforts and promoting bamboo plantations to ensure a steady supply of food for red pandas.
  3. Community Involvement: Involving local communities in conservation efforts, creating awareness, and promoting responsible tourism to minimize human impact on red panda habitats.

Action Plan for the Conservation of ‘Crocodile Project’:

  1. Protected Areas and Sanctuaries: Designating Sundarban in West Bengal and Bhitarkanika in Odisha as protected areas and sanctuaries for crocodiles.
  2. Active Breeding and Rehabilitation Centers: Establishing breeding and rehabilitation centres to actively breed crocodiles and raise baby crocodiles in captivity for release into their natural habitats.
  3. Habitat Restoration: Focusing on habitat restoration and conservation measures to maintain suitable environments for crocodiles to thrive.

Question 18

Define a zoological garden with characteristic features and an example.

Answer

A zoological garden, commonly known as a zoo, is a controlled and enclosed area where various types of animals, including wildlife, are kept within confined enclosures. The animals are provided with food, water, and proper care to ensure their well-being and comfort.

Characteristic features are

  1. Zoos are government-maintained for ex-situ conservation of endangered wildlife.
  2. Zoos use captive breeding to increase populations of endangered animals and reintroduce them into the wild.
  3. Zoological gardens allow visitors to study animals, provide entertainment, and support research on rare species.

Example – Alipore Zoological Garden (In West Bengal, Kolkata) and Zoological Garden (In Delhi).

Question 19

Describe a national park and sanctuary with an example.

Answer

National Park:

  • A National Park is a protected area where the entire ecosystem, including plants and wildlife, is conserved in its natural state.
  • Human activities that may harm the ecosystem, such as grazing, forestry, cultivation, etc., are strictly prohibited.
  • The primary focus is on the conservation of natural biodiversity and ecological processes.

Example: Jim Corbett National Park is a famous National Park in India, located in Uttarakhand state.

Sanctuary:

  • A Sanctuary is also a protected area for the conservation of specific species of plants and wildlife.
  • Some regulated activities may be allowed, such as a collection of forest products or limited human activities, as long as they do not harm the protected species.
  • The primary objective is to provide a safe habitat for endangered species and prevent their exploitation.

Example: Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary is a well-known Sanctuary located in Kerala, India.

Question 20

How environmental pollution causes cancer?

Answer

Environmental pollution can contribute to the development of cancer through exposure to various carcinogenic pollutants. Some ways in which environmental pollution can lead to cancer include:

  1. Air Pollution: Inhaling particulate matter, VOCs, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide can damage the respiratory system and cause lung cancer. Air pollution may also carry carcinogens that can be inhaled or ingested, leading to cancer.
  2. Water Pollution: Contaminated water with toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and industrial waste can expose individuals to carcinogens. Drinking water contaminated with substances like arsenic or lead increases the risk of certain cancers.
  3. Chemical Exposure: Exposure to toxic chemicals in pesticides, industrial products, and household items can cause cancer. Some of these chemicals are mutagenic and can damage DNA, leading to cancerous cell development.

Leave a comment

Subscribe
Notify of