Explain the Kashmir problem.
The Kashmir problem arose due to the disagreement between India and Pakistan over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The majority of the people in the state were Muslims, but the ruler of the state, Hari Singh, was a Hindu. After India’s independence, Pakistan claimed that the state should have been a part of Pakistan because of its Muslim majority. However, India argued that Hari Singh had acceded to India, and thus it was an integral part of India.
In October 1947, Pakistan sent armed tribal raiders into Kashmir to seize control of the state, which led to a war between India and Pakistan. India referred the matter to the United Nations, and a ceasefire was eventually agreed upon in January 1949, which established a line of control that divided the state into Indian-administered and Pakistan-administered territories.