Chapter 7 – Resources of India | Class 9 School Geography Solution

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Book Name : School Geography
Subject : Geography
Class : 10 (Madhyamik)
Publisher : Bengal Book Syndicate (P) Ltd.
Chapter Name : Resources of India

Identify the correct answers

Question 1 (a)

A thing or a substance will be considered a ‘resource’ if it has : reserves/utility/ potentiality/high cost price

Answer

A thing or a substance will be considered a ‘resource’ if it has utility.

Question 1 (b)

Sunlight is a : human resource/natural resource/fund resource/individual resource.

Answer

Sunlight is a natural resource.

Question 1 (c)

An example of a fund resource is sunlight/water/coal/wind.

Answer

An example of a fund resource is coal.

Question 1 (d)

Magnetite is an important ore of copper/iron/aluminium/tin.

Answer

Magnetite is an important ore of iron.

Question 1 (e)

In coal production, India holds the third/fifth/first/seventh position.

Answer

India holds the third position in coal production.

Question 1 (f)

The largest oil mining centre in India is Lakhimpur/Digboi/Mumbai High/Hugrijan.

Answer

The largest oil mining centre in India is Mumbai High.

Question 1 (g)

One important conventional power source is hydroelectricity/solar energy/wind energy/geothermal energy.

Answer

One important conventional power source is hydroelectricity.

Question 1 (h)

The power produced by burning coal, petroleum etc., is called hydel power/ atomic power/thermal power/solar power.

Answer

The power produced by burning coal, petroleum etc., is called thermal power.

If the sentence is true write T and if false write F against the following

Question 2
  1. Karnataka is the leading producer of iron ore in India.
  2. Mica acts as a ‘cleanser’ in the manufacture of steel.
  3. Kalapakkam in Tamil Nadu is a thermal power station.
  4. The heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy.
  5. Burning fossil fuel minimises environmental pollution.
Answer
  1. False – Odisha is the leading producer of iron ore in India.
  2. False – Mica is not used as a cleanser in the manufacture of steel. It is used as an insulating material.
  3. False – Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu is a nuclear power plant, not a thermal power station.
  4. True – Geothermal energy is heat energy generated and stored in the Earth. It can be used to generate electricity, heat homes and buildings, and provide hot water for various uses.
  5. False – Burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which contribute to climate change and other environmental problems.

Fill in the blanks with the correct words

Question 3
  1. Petroleum is referred to as ____ ____.
  2. The atomic power station in Maharashtra ____.
  3. The first hydel power plant in India was established in 1902 in Karnataka at ____ on the river Cauvery (Kaveri).
  4. The resources available everywhere on earth are called ____.
  5. ____ and ____ are two important by-products of petroleum.
Answer
  1. Fossil Fuel
  2. Tarapur
  3. Shivanasamudram
  4. Ubiquitous resources
  5. Gas and Diesel

Answer in word or words resources

Question 4 (a)

Name the oldest oil-producing field of India.

Answer

The oldest oil-producing field in India is Digboi in Assam.

Question 4 (b)

What are the resources felt by touch called ?

Answer

Resources felt by touch are called tactile resources. Examples of tactile resources include water, minerals, and rocks.

Question 4 (c)

What is the most important type of iron ore available in India ?

Answer

The most important type of iron ore available in India is hematite.

Question 4 (d)

To which geological age does Indian coal belong ?

Answer

Indian coal mainly belongs to the Gondwana period, which occurred around 250 to 150 million years ago.

Question 4 (e)

What is the power derived from running water called ?

Answer

The power derived from running water is called hydroelectric power or hydropower.

Correct the following sentences

Question 5 (a)

Wind energy is produced using Photovoltaic cell.

Answer

Wind energy is produced using wind turbines.

Question 5 (b)

Talcher in Odisha is a famous petroleum mining centre of India.

Answer

Talcher in Odisha is a famous coal mining centre of India.

Question 5 (c)

Natural gas is bulky to transport and its cost of production is high.

Answer

Natural gas is easy to transport and its cost of production is relatively low.

Question 5 (d)

Hydel power is used to provide heat and steam for the industries.

Answer

Hydel power is mainly used to generate electricity, not for providing heat and steam for industries.

Question 5 (e)

Air we breathe is a common resource.

Answer

Air we breathe is a natural resource.

Short answer type questions

Question 6 (a)

What is Resource?

Answer

A resource is anything that can be used to satisfy human needs and wants. It can be a natural resource, such as air, water, soil, minerals, and forests, or a human-made resource, such as machines, buildings, and roads.

Question 6 (b)

What is Flow resource?

Answer

A flow resource is a type of natural resource that can be replenished over time through natural processes, such as sunlight, wind, water, and biological reproduction. These resources are typically renewable and can be used without the fear of depletion as long as they are managed sustainably.

Question 6 (c)

What is National resource?

Answer

National resource refers to the resources that are owned, managed, and controlled by a country’s government for the benefit of its citizens. These resources can include natural resources like land, water, minerals, forests, and wildlife, as well as human resources like skilled labour and intellectual property.

Question 6 (d)

What is Conservation of resource?

Answer

Conservation of resource refers to the sustainable and responsible use of natural resources in a way that ensures their availability for future generations. It involves the protection and management of natural resources such as water, air, land, minerals, forests, and wildlife, to ensure their sustainable use for economic, social, and environmental benefits.

Question 6 (e)

What are the uses of petroleum?

Answer

The uses of petroleum

  1. Petroleum is used as a fuel for transportation, including cars, trucks, airplanes, and ships.
  2. It is also used as a raw material in the production of a wide range of products, such as plastics, chemicals, and synthetic materials.
  3. Petroleum is also used for heating buildings and generating electricity.

Question 6 (f)

What are Non-conventional sources of power?

Answer

Non-conventional sources of power are those which are renewable and not derived from fossil fuels. Some examples of non-conventional sources of power include:

  1. Solar energy
  2. Wind energy
  3. Hydroelectric power
  4. Geothermal energy

Question 6 (g)

What is Geo-thermal energy?

Answer

Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth’s core, which can be harnessed for various uses, including electricity generation, heating, and cooling. It is produced by the slow decay of radioactive particles in the Earth’s core and the high temperatures and pressures that exist deep within the Earth’s mantle.

Answer the following questions

Question 7 (a)

Classify resources and write on any 2 types.

Answer

Resources can be classified into various categories based on different criteria. Two common classifications of resources are:

  1. Based on Origin:
    • Abiotic Resources: These resources are non-living and include things like land, water, air, and minerals such as gold, iron, copper, and silver. They do not originate from living organisms and are essential for various industrial and natural processes.
    • Biotic Resources: Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere, meaning they come from living organisms. Examples include plants, animals, and other biological materials. These resources are crucial for food production, medicine, and many other aspects of human life.
  2. Based on Availability:
    • Renewable Resources: Renewable resources are available in infinite quantities and can be used repeatedly without depletion. Examples include forests, wind energy, and water resources. These resources are sustainable over the long term and can be replenished through natural processes.
    • Non-Renewable Resources: Non-renewable resources have limited abundance due to their non-renewable nature, and their availability may eventually run out. Fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas are prime examples of non-renewable resources. Once depleted, they cannot be readily replaced within a human time frame.

Question 7 (b)

Name the by-products derived from coal.

Answer

The main by-products derived from coal are:

  1. Coke: Coke is a hard, porous, and nearly pure carbon substance produced by heating coal in the absence of air. It is used in the production of iron and steel, as well as in other industrial processes.
  2. Coal tar: Coal tar is a thick, black liquid produced from the condensation of the vapors released during the destructive distillation of coal. It is used in the production of a wide range of products, including asphalt, roofing materials, dyes, plastics, and pharmaceuticals.
  3. Coal gas: Coal gas is a flammable gas produced from the destructive distillation of coal. It was once widely used as a fuel for lighting, heating, and cooking, but it has now been largely replaced by natural gas.

Question 7 (c)

Why is petroleum called ‘Liquid Gold’?

Answer

Petroleum called ‘Liquid Gold’ because

  1. Petroleum is a valuable natural resource that has a high economic value and is used in various industries.
  2. It is called ‘liquid gold’ due to its scarcity, limited availability, and high demand.
  3. The term ‘liquid gold’ also reflects its importance as a source of energy and its potential to generate huge profits for oil-producing countries and companies.

Question 7 (d)

Describe the coal mining regions of Jharkhand and Odisha.

Answer

Jharkhand and Odisha are the two major coal-mining regions in India. Here’s a brief description of each:

Jharkhand:

  • Jharkhand is located in the eastern part of India and is one of the richest mineral zones in the country.
  • The state accounts for about 25% of the total coal reserves in India.
  • The major coalfields in Jharkhand are Jharia, Bokaro, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Ramgarh, and Giridih.
  • The coal found in Jharkhand is bituminous and sub-bituminous in nature and is mainly used in thermal power plants.

Odisha:

  • Odisha is located on the eastern coast of India and is another major coal-producing state in the country.
  • The state accounts for about 24% of the total coal reserves in India.
  • The major coalfields in Odisha are Talcher, Ib Valley, Rampur, and Hingir-Rampur.
  • The coal found in Odisha is of low ash and low sulphur content, which makes it suitable for use in steel plants and other industries.

Question 7 (e)

Name the major atomic power stations in India.

Answer

The major atomic power stations in India are:

  1. Tarapur Atomic Power Station (Maharashtra)
  2. Rawatbhata Atomic Power Station (Rajasthan)
  3. Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (Gujarat)
  4. Narora Atomic Power Station (Uttar Pradesh)
  5. Kaiga Atomic Power Station (Karnataka)
  6. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (Tamil Nadu)
  7. Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station (Tamil Nadu)

Question 7 (f)

What is ‘Sagar Samrat’ ?

Answer

‘Sagar Samrat’ is a semi-submersible drilling rig operated by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), India’s largest oil and gas exploration company. It is used for offshore drilling operations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. It is one of the largest and most advanced drilling rigs in Asia.

Match the column

Question 8

Column A Column B
(1) Bituminous (a) Geo-thermal energy
(2) Chidambaram in Kaveri basin (b) Limonite
(3) Hot spring (c) Cultural resource
(4) Iron ore (d) Possibility of Natural Gas
(5) Knowledge, skill (e) Coal

Answer

Column A Column B
(1) Bituminous (e) Coal
(2) Chidambaram in Kaveri basin (d) Possibility of Natural Gas
(3) Hot spring (a) Geothermal energy
(4) Iron ore (b) Limonite
(5) Knowledge, skill (c) Cultural resource

Cross-Word

Question 9

Clues

Across-

(1) Name of the oil-rig at Mumbai High.

(4) Commonly used sources of power.

Down-

(2) Heat energy obtained from earth.

(3) Solar energy is derived from it.

(5) Oil used for domestic purposes. (as fuel)

Answer

Across – (1) Sagar Samrat (4) Nuclear energy

Down – (2) Geothermal (3) Sunlight (5) kerosene

Long answer or essay-type questions

Question 10 (a)

Explain what is resource?

Answer

Resource refers to anything that is useful, valuable and available for use. It can be a physical or virtual entity that has the potential to fulfill a need or demand. Resources are the inputs for any kind of activity or production. They can be natural or human-made, and renewable or non-renewable.

Natural resources include air, water, land, forests, minerals, petroleum, natural gas, etc., whereas human-made resources include machinery, tools, buildings, etc. Renewable resources include solar, wind, water, geothermal energy, whereas non-renewable resources include coal, oil, natural gas, etc.

Resources are classified based on their availability, accessibility, and potential for use. Some resources may be abundant in one area but scarce in another, and some may be available but too costly to extract or utilize. Therefore, resources must be managed sustainably to ensure their availability for future generations.

Effective management of resources involves identification, quantification, development, and utilization of resources. This process involves the adoption of sustainable practices to maximize their benefits and minimize their negative impact on the environment. Conservation of resources is crucial in maintaining ecological balance and preventing depletion of natural resources.

Question 10 (b)

Classify resources and discuss about each type.

Answer

Resources can be broadly classified into two categories: Natural resources and Human-made resources.

  1. Natural resources: Natural resources are resources that occur in nature and are not created by human beings. They can be classified into the following categories:
  • Renewable resources: Renewable resources are those that can be replenished over time through natural processes. Some examples include solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, and biomass.
  • Non-renewable resources: Non-renewable resources are those that are finite and cannot be replenished once they are depleted. Examples include fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas, and minerals like iron, copper, and gold.
  • Biotic resources: Biotic resources are those that come from living organisms, such as timber, wildlife, and fisheries.
  • Abiotic resources: Abiotic resources are those that come from non-living sources, such as minerals, water, and air.
  1. Human-made resources: Human-made resources are resources that are created by human beings for their own use. They can be classified into the following categories:
  • Infrastructure resources: Infrastructure resources are those that are built by human beings for their own use, such as roads, buildings, bridges, and airports.
  • Knowledge resources: Knowledge resources are those that are created through human intellect and skill, such as scientific knowledge, technology, and education.
  • Financial resources: Financial resources are those that are created through human economic activities, such as money, stocks, and bonds.

Question 10 (c)

How can we conserve resources?

Answer

Here are 6 ways to conserve resources:

  1. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle: By using the three R’s principle, we can minimize waste generation, extend the life of resources, and reduce the amount of material that ends up in landfills or incinerators.
  2. Use Energy Efficiently: Energy-efficient appliances, light bulbs, and transportation can help conserve energy resources.
  3. Use Water Wisely: Conserving water by using low-flow showerheads, fixing leaky faucets, and reducing water usage in other ways can save water resources.
  4. Preserve Natural Habitats: Preserving natural habitats, such as forests, wetlands, and coral reefs, can help conserve biodiversity and natural resources.
  5. Adopt Sustainable Practices: Sustainable practices such as organic farming, sustainable forestry, and green building can help conserve resources.
  6. Promote Environmental Education: Environmental education can raise awareness about the need for resource conservation, and help individuals understand how their actions can impact the environment.

Question 10 (d)

Give an account of iron ore, its uses and producing areas in India.

Answer

Iron ore is a mineral substance that is mined and processed to extract iron metal.

Uses of Iron Ore:

Iron ore is primarily used in the production of steel, which is essential for the construction of buildings, infrastructure, and transportation systems. Iron ore is also used in the production of other products, such as fertilizers, magnets, and electronics.

Producing Areas in India:

India is one of the largest producers of iron ore in the world, with an estimated production of around 220 million tonnes in 2020. The major producing states in India are:

  1. Odisha: Odisha is the largest producer of iron ore in India, accounting for more than 50% of the total production. Some of the major iron ore mines in Odisha are Daitari, Gandhamardan, Khandadhar, and Malangtoli.
  2. Chhattisgarh: Chhattisgarh is the second-largest producer of iron ore in India, with major mines located in the Bailadila region.
  3. Jharkhand: Jharkhand is another major producer of iron ore in India, with mines located in the Singhbhum district.
  4. Karnataka: Karnataka is a major producer of iron ore in India, with mines located in the Bellary-Hospet region.

Question 10 (e)

Describe the uses and distribution of coal in India.

Answer

Uses of Coal:

  1. Electricity Generation: Coal is the most widely used fuel for electricity generation in India, accounting for more than 70% of the total electricity generation capacity.
  2. Steel Production: Coal is used as a fuel and reducing agent in the production of steel. The iron and steel industry is the second-largest consumer of coal in India.
  3. Cement Manufacturing: Coal is used as a fuel in the cement manufacturing process, which involves heating limestone and clay to high temperatures to produce cement.
  4. Other Industrial Processes: Coal is also used as a fuel in other industrial processes, such as paper and textile manufacturing, and as a feedstock for the production of chemicals and synthetic materials.

Distribution of Coal in India:

Coal reserves in India are mainly concentrated in the eastern and central parts of the country. The major coal-producing states in India are:

  1. Jharkhand: Jharkhand is the largest coal-producing state in India, accounting for more than 25% of the total production.
  2. Chhattisgarh: Chhattisgarh is the second-largest coal-producing state in India, with major coalfields located in the Raigarh, Surguja, and Korba districts.
  3. Odisha: Odisha is another major coal-producing state in India, with coal reserves located in the Talcher and Ib Valley coalfields.
  4. West Bengal: West Bengal has coal reserves in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfields.

Question 10 (f)

Discuss the petroleum mining and refining centres of India.

Answer

The major petroleum mining areas in India are:

  1. Mumbai High: Mumbai High is the largest offshore oil field in India, located in the Arabian Sea, around 160 km west of Mumbai. It was discovered in 1974 and has an estimated reserve of around 1.5 billion barrels of oil.
  2. Krishna-Godavari Basin: The Krishna-Godavari Basin is one of the largest offshore sedimentary basins in India, located along the east coast of India. It has been a significant source of natural gas in India in recent years.
  3. Cambay Basin: The Cambay Basin is an onshore sedimentary basin located in the state of Gujarat, which has significant reserves of oil and natural gas.

Refining Centres of Petroleum in India:

Petroleum refining is the process of converting crude oil into various petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and LPG. India has several petroleum refining centres located across the country, which are:

  1. Jamnagar Refinery: The Jamnagar Refinery, located in the state of Gujarat, is the largest petroleum refinery in India and the world. It has a capacity of 1.24 million barrels per day.
  2. Paradip Refinery: The Paradip Refinery, located in the state of Odisha, is one of the newest and largest petroleum refineries in India, with a capacity of 300,000 barrels per day.
  3. Mumbai Refinery: The Mumbai Refinery, located in the state of Maharashtra, is one of the oldest petroleum refineries in India, with a capacity of 240,000 barrels per day.
  4. Mangalore Refinery: The Mangalore Refinery, located in the state of Karnataka, has a capacity of 300,000 barrels per day.
  5. Kochi Refinery: The Kochi Refinery, located in the state of Kerala, has a capacity of 190,000 barrels per day.

Question 10 (g)

Differentiate the conventional and non-conventional sources of power.

Answer

Conventional Sources of Power Non-Conventional Sources of Power
Fossil fuels are the primary source Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal are the primary sources
Limited availability and will deplete over time Inexhaustible and readily available
High carbon emissions and contribute to climate change Environmentally friendly with low carbon emissions
Require extensive infrastructure and investments Requires lower infrastructure and investment
Mature and well-established technologies Emerging and developing technologies

Question 10 (h)

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different conventional sources of power.

Answer

Here are the advantages and disadvantages of different conventional sources of power:

(i) Coal

Advantages:

  • Abundant and widely available.
  • Reliable source of energy.

Disadvantages:

  • High carbon emissions and contribute to climate change.
  • Mining and combustion of coal pose environmental and health hazards.

(ii) Oil

Advantages:

  • High energy density and easy to transport.
  • Widely available and versatile.

Disadvantages:

  • Limited availability and will deplete over time.
  • High carbon emissions and contribute to climate change.

(iii) Natural Gas

Advantages:

  • Cleanest burning fossil fuel with low carbon emissions.
  • Abundant and widely available.

Disadvantages:

  • Limited availability and will deplete over time.
  • Production and transportation of natural gas pose environmental risks.

(iv) Nuclear Energy

Advantages:

  • Low carbon emissions.
  • High energy density and reliable source of energy.

Disadvantages:

  • Radioactive waste disposal and storage pose environmental risks.
  • Accidents and disasters, such as Chornobyl and Fukushima, have severe consequences.

Question 10 (i)

Describe the distribution of hydel power plants in India.

Answer

The First hydel power plant in India was established in 1902 in Karnataka at (1) Shivasamudram on the river Kaveri. Country’s major hydro-electric power stations are located at [1] Shivasamudram, Simsa and Jog (at present Mahatma Gandhi Hydel Power Station) in Karnataka, [2] Mettur and Papnasam in Tamil Nadu, [3] Idikki, Sabarigiri and Pallivasal in Kerala, [4] Sileru, Manchkud, Nagarjuna Sagar in Andhra Pradesh, [5] Vira, Vivpuri, Koyna and Khopali in Maharashtra, [6] Rihand, Ramganga, Bhola, Sumera in Uttar Pradesh [7] Pravati, Baira-Siul, Bhakra-Nangal in Himachal Pradesh, [8] Hirakud and Manchkud in Odisha and Tilaiya, Maithan, Panchet and Massanjore hydro-power station of Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal.

Question 10 (j)

Write an account of the non-conventional sources of power in India.

Answer

Non-conventional sources of power, also known as renewable energy sources, are becoming increasingly important in India to meet the growing energy demands and reduce dependence on conventional sources of power. Here’s an account of non-conventional sources of power in India:

  1. Solar Energy: India is one of the countries with the highest solar irradiation in the world, making it an ideal location for solar energy generation. The government of India has set a target of achieving 100 GW of solar power capacity by 2022. Some of the major solar power projects in India include the Bhadla Solar Park in Rajasthan and the Kamuthi Solar Power Project in Tamil Nadu.
  2. Wind Energy: Wind energy is one of the oldest and most established forms of renewable energy in India. India is the fourth-largest wind power producer in the world, with an installed capacity of over 38 GW. Major wind power projects in India include the Kutch Wind Park in Gujarat and the Muppandal Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu.
  3. Hydropower: Hydropower is a clean and renewable energy source that has been used in India for many years. India has a significant hydropower potential, with an installed capacity of over 50 GW. Major hydropower projects in India include the Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Station in Himachal Pradesh and the Tehri Dam in Uttarakhand.
  4. Bioenergy: Bioenergy is a renewable energy source that is generated from organic matter such as agricultural waste, forest residues, and municipal solid waste. India has significant potential for bioenergy generation, with an estimated potential of around 18 GW. Major bioenergy projects in India include the Bagasse-based cogeneration projects in the sugar industry and the biogas plants in rural areas.
  5. Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is a relatively untapped source of renewable energy in India. However, India has a significant potential for geothermal energy generation, with hot springs and geothermal fields located in several regions of the country. Major geothermal energy projects in India include the Tattapani Geothermal Power Plant in Chhattisgarh and the Puga Geothermal Power Project in Ladakh.

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