Madhyamik Project on West Bengal | Class 9 Geography

Project on West Bengal

Our state West Bengal is one of the twenty-nine states of our country India. It is our homeland. Most of the people living in West Bengal are born here, spend their childhood, enjoy and experience their adulthood and pass their restful oldage here. Our state embraces people from all walks of life, who belong to various communities having different religious faiths and cultural values. It is our own state that nurtures our present and makes promises to fulfil our future dreams. It is therefore our utmost duty to acquire knowledge about our state, West Bengal.

Location, Administrative Divisions of West Bengal

A brief outline of West Bengal as a State of India after Independence:

West Bengal is a state in eastern India. It was formed in 1947 after the partition of Bengal. The state has a population of over 91 million people and is the 14th largest state in India by area. Kolkata is the capital city of West Bengal. The state has a Legislative Assembly with 295 seats. Calcutta High Court is the apex judiciary body of the state. count the number of words.

Geographical Location and Size:

West Bengal is a state in eastern India. It is located in the foothills of the Himalayas and borders Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Bangladesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, and Odisha. The state has a total area of 88,752 square kilometres. The highest point in West Bengal is Sandakfu, which is 11,929 feet above sea level. The state has a tropical climate and is home to a variety of physical features, including mountains, plains, and forests.

Administrative Divisions: 

In West Bengal a group of districts forms a division, which is headed by a ‘Divisional Commissioner’. 23 districts of West Bengal are grouped under five divisions namely: Malda, Burdwan, Presidency, Jalpaiguri, and Medinipur. Each division is headed by a Divisional Commissioner. The Presidency division is the largest and most populous division, and its headquarters is in Kolkata, the state capital.

West Bengal Administrative Division

Divisions 5
Districts 23
Sub-divisions 69
Municipal Corporations 7
Municipalities 119
Gram Panchayats 3354
Panchayat Samitis 341
Zilla Parishads 18
Mahakuma Parisad (Siliguri) 1


The Neighbouring Countries Of West Bengal

West Bengal, a state in eastern India, shares international borders with three countries: Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.

  • Bangladesh: West Bengal shares a 2,216-kilometer border with Bangladesh to the east. The border is mostly riverine, with the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers forming part of it.
  • Nepal: West Bengal shares a 699-kilometre border with Nepal to the north. The border is mostly mountainous, with the Himalayas forming part of it.
  • Bhutan: West Bengal does not share a direct border with Bhutan. However, Bhutan is connected to West Bengal through the Siliguri Corridor, a narrow strip of land that is surrounded by India on all sides.

The border with Bangladesh is the busiest border in India, with millions of people crossing it every year. The border with Nepal is also important for trade and tourism. The border with Bhutan is not as important for trade and tourism, but it is important for security and defence.

The Neighbouring States Of West Bengal

West Bengal is a state in eastern India. It shares borders with six Indian states: Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Sikkim, and Tripura.

  • Assam: Assam is located in the north-east of West Bengal. It is known for its tea plantations and wildlife. The Brahmaputra River, the longest river in India, flows through Assam.
  • Bihar: Bihar is located in the north-west of West Bengal. It is known for its ancient history and culture. The state is home to the ruins of the ancient city of Pataliputra, which was once the capital of the Mauryan Empire.
  • Jharkhand: Jharkhand is located to the west of West Bengal. It is known for its coal mines and forests. The Chota Nagpur Plateau, a major mineral-rich region, is located in Jharkhand.
  • Odisha: Odisha is located to the south-west of West Bengal. It is known for its beaches and temples. The Bay of Bengal, the easternmost arm of the Indian Ocean, is located on the coast of Odisha.
  • Sikkim: Sikkim is located to the north of West Bengal. It is known for its mountains and monasteries. The Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, is located in Sikkim.
  • Tripura: Tripura is located to the east of West Bengal. It is known for its hills and valleys. The Haora and Gomati rivers are the major rivers in Tripura.

Climate of West Bengal

West Bengal thus has a tropical hot and humid monsoon type of climate. According to the variations in the elements (temperature, rainfall etc.) of weather and climate, a year in West Bengal can be divided into four seasons : (1) Summer, (2) Rainy or Monsoon, (3) Autumn and (4) Winter

  • Summer season May to June.
  • Rainy season from June to September.
  • Autumn season in October-November.
  • Winter season from December to February.

(1) Summer (May to June): The summer season in West Bengal runs from March to May. The temperature gradually rises during this time, with the hottest months being April and May. The average temperature in May can reach up to 38°C in some parts of the state. The northern mountains experience cooler temperatures.

Thunderstorms can occur during the summer, especially in the afternoons. These storms are caused by the meeting of hot, dry winds from the northwest and humid winds from the Bay of Bengal. They are known as Nor’westers or Kalbaishakhi in Bengal. These storms can bring temporary relief from the heat.

(2) Rainy season (June to September): The rainy season in West Bengal comes in the middle of June and continues upto the middle of October. In this season, the southwest monsoon approaches West Bengal. It brings seasonal rain. The Northern districts of this state receive heavy rainfall, while the western districts get medium rainfall. The monsoonal rainfall starts in the month of July in West Bengal. So, July is the rainiest month here. High temperature and heavy rainfall are characteristics of this season.

(3) Autumn (October to November): The Autumn prevails with mostly clear weather. However, sometimes, storms occur owing to the conflict of the retreating south-west monsoon and the advancing north-east monsoon. The storm of this season in Bengal is popularly known as ‘Ashwiner jharh’. It brings some amount of rain in our state.

(4) Winter (December to February): The winter season in West Bengal runs from December to February. The temperature is mild during this time, with average temperatures ranging from 9°C to 17°C. The coldest month is January. The northern mountains experience colder temperatures, with snowfall at high altitudes. The northeast monsoon passes through the land during this season, so there is generally no rainfall.

Soil of West Bengal

The loose material or the uppermost layer on the Earth’s crust consisting of very small particles and humus, which can support the growth of plants is known as soil. There are different types of soil in West Bengal. Of them the three major types of soil are:

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Laterite soil and
  3. Saline-alkaline soil

(1) Alluvial Soil: Alluvial soil covers the entire riverine plains of West Bengal. It is derived from the debris brought down from the Himalayas by the snow-fed rivers. The soil is loamy (with sand and clay) and very fertile. It is well-drained and suited for rice, wheat, maize, sugarcane, pulses, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables. This soil is rich in humus, phosphoric acid, lime and organic matter but is deficient in potash.

(2) Laterite Soil: The laterite soil is found in the western plateau region, in Birbhum, Bankura, West Midnapur, Puruliya and the western part of Bardhaman districts. The name Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘Later’ meaning ‘brick’. This soil when wet is very soft but becomes quite hard when dry. The soil is red in colour and is not fertile. The red colour of the soil is due to the presence of iron oxide. Alternate wet and dry seasons lead to leaching away of the siliceous matter of the rock. The soil is rich in iron and aluminium but poor in nitrogen, potash, potassium, lime etc. A lot of irrigation and fertilizers are required for successful cultivation on it. Crops like rice, ragi, sugarcane and coconuts grow on this type of soil.

(3) Saline-alkaline soil: This soil is found in the southern delta region particularly in the Sundarbans and on the coastal margin of east Medinipur district. The soil varies from sandy to sandy loam in texture. The soil of the coastal region of Medinipur is very sandy. The soil of the Sundarbans is clayey. Crops are grown on it when extra salt is washed away by rain.


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