Describe the processes that produce the initial landforms (mountains, plateaus etc.), on earth.
The processes that produce the initial landforms on Earth are known as endogenic processes. These processes are powered by internal energy sources and are responsible for the formation of landforms such as mountains, plateaus, and volcanoes. The main processes that produce these landforms include:
- Plate tectonics: The movement of the Earth’s plates causes the crust to buckle and fold, leading to the formation of mountains and plateaus. This process also creates volcanic activity along the boundaries of the plates.
- Volcanism: The eruption of magma from the Earth’s mantle can create new landforms such as volcanic mountains, lava plateaus, and volcanic islands.
- Faulting: The movement of the Earth’s crust along fault lines can create uplifted areas known as horsts and downfaulted areas known as grabens, which can eventually form plateaus.
- Epeirogeny: This refers to broad, regional uplift or subsidence of the Earth’s crust, which can lead to the formation of plateaus or basins.