How are fold mountains formed? Explain in the light of plate tectonics.
Here are the key points explaining how fold mountains are formed in the light of plate tectonics:
- Fold mountains are formed by the process of orogenesis, which involves the folding and uplift of the Earth’s crust.
- This process is driven by plate tectonics, which describes the movement of the Earth’s plates.
- When two plates collide, one plate is forced under the other in a process known as subduction.
- The subducting plate is forced deep into the Earth’s mantle, causing it to melt and form magma.
- This magma rises to the surface, where it can erupt and create volcanic activity.
- The collision between the two plates also causes the crust to buckle and fold, leading to the formation of fold mountains.
- The folding process is caused by compressional forces, which push and squeeze the crust, causing it to deform and fold upwards.
- Over time, erosion and weathering can wear away the surface of the mountains, exposing the layers of rock that were folded during the orogeny.
- These layers can provide geologists with important information about the geological history of the area.
- Examples of fold mountains include the Himalayas, the Rocky Mountains, and the Andes, which are formed by the collision of two continental plates.