What are the characteristic features of the Chaur Rebellion? Give a brief account of the Kol Rebellion.
The characteristic features of the Chaur Rebellion are:
- The Chuar Rebellion was a fight to maintain the Chuar tribals’ rights over the forest resources and land given by landlords.
- The landlords started to forcibly take away the lands belonging to the Chuar people after the introduction of the Permanent Settlement Act (1793) in Bengal.
- Rani Shiromoni, the queen of Karnagarh, took the leadership of the revolt in north-west Medinipur, and her three main centres were Shalbani, Bahadur, and Karnagarh.
- Chuar rebels, under the leadership of Durjon Singha, occupied 30 villages of Raipur and burned down Government offices in Salboni.
The Kol Rebellion, 1831-32
The Kol Rebellion took place in 1831-32 in the Chhotanagpur area of Bihar. The rebellion was mainly led by the Kol community, who revolted against the landlords, money-lenders and the British Government. After the introduction of the Permanent Settlement Act, the oppression of the Kol tribals increased, which led to the rebellion. However, in the Battle of Chaibasa in 1820-21, the Kols were defeated by the British forces who were armed with modern firearms.
Characteristics of Kol Rebellion:
- The Kol Rebellion took place in 1831-32 in the Chhotanagpur area of Bihar.
- The main leaders of the rebellion were Buddha Bhagat, Bindrai Manki, Sui, Munda, etc.
- The rebellion quickly spread over forested areas of Manbhum, Singbhum, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Palamau, and Chhota Nagpur.
- For two months, the rebels targeted landlords, hoarders, moneylenders, and British officials.
- The rebels protested against leasing out land to Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh moneylenders who charged exorbitant taxes.
- Mass movement and collective action were important features of the rebellion.