Explain the working principle for fractional distillation mentioning the importance of boiling points.
The working principle of fractional distillation relies on the fact that different components in a liquid mixture have different boiling points. Here’s how it works:
Fractional distillation works by heating a mixture of liquids to separate them based on their different boiling points. The liquid with the lowest boiling point evaporates first and rises in the distillation (Fractionating) column, while the one with the higher boiling point remains in liquid form. This separation happens because substances with different boiling points condense at different heights in the column, allowing for efficient separation based on boiling point differences.