Mention how arsenic is a source of toxicity. Mention its source, MCL and its removal process.
Arsenic is a toxic substance with harmful effects:
- Source: Natural occurrence in groundwater, industrial activities, mining, and agricultural practices.
- MCL: The maximum contamination level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water is typically around 10 μg/L or lower.
- Harmful Effects: Arsenic ingestion can lead to various health issues, including skin lesions, cancer (skin, lung, bladder), cardiovascular diseases, and neurological effects.
- Removal Process: Arsenic removal methods include activated alumina filtration, coagulation/flocculation, adsorption with iron-based media, and membrane filtration (such as reverse osmosis).