State Bernoulli’s theorem. Write down its mathematical expression. What are its limitations?
Bernoulli’s theorem states that in an ideal fluid flow, where there is no friction or energy loss, the sum of the pressure energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy at any point along a streamline is constant.
Mathematically, this can be expressed as:
P + (1/2)ρv² + ρgh = constant
Some of the limitations of Bernoulli’s theorem include:
- It applies only to ideal fluids that are incompressible and have no viscosity.
- It assumes that the flow is steady and the fluid is incompressible.