Question

An unloaded ship is filled with sand at its bottom to …………… its centre of gravity and make its equilibrium ……………
(a) lower, unstable
(b) higher, stable
(c) lower, stable
(d) higher, unstable

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Answer

(c) lower, stable

Reason — An unloaded ship floats with very small volume inside water. As a result, its centre of gravity is higher and its equilibrium is unstable. There is a danger that it may get blown over on its side by strong winds. Therefore, an unloaded ship is filled with sand (or stones), called ballast, at its bottom. This lowers its centre of gravity to make its equilibrium stable.

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