What is a neurone? Describe the structure of the neurone with a diagram.
A neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system. It is a specialized cell that receives, processes and transmits information. Neurons are made up of three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body, and the axon.
Here are some additional details about the structure of a neuron:
- Dendrites: Dendrites are typically short and branched, and they receive signals from other neurons.
- Cell body: The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles of the neuron. It is also where protein synthesis takes place.
- Axon: The axon is a long, thin extension of the cell body that transmits signals to other neurons.
- Myelin sheath: The myelin sheath is a fatty layer that surrounds the axon and insulates it. This helps to speed up the transmission of signals.
- Nodes of Ranvier: Nodes of Ranvier are gaps in the myelin sheath. These gaps allow the electrical signals to jump from node to node, which further speeds up the transmission of signals.