Describe the uses and distribution of coal in India.
Uses of Coal:
- Electricity Generation: Coal is the most widely used fuel for electricity generation in India, accounting for more than 70% of the total electricity generation capacity.
- Steel Production: Coal is used as a fuel and reducing agent in the production of steel. The iron and steel industry is the second-largest consumer of coal in India.
- Cement Manufacturing: Coal is used as a fuel in the cement manufacturing process, which involves heating limestone and clay to high temperatures to produce cement.
- Other Industrial Processes: Coal is also used as a fuel in other industrial processes, such as paper and textile manufacturing, and as a feedstock for the production of chemicals and synthetic materials.
Distribution of Coal in India:
Coal reserves in India are mainly concentrated in the eastern and central parts of the country. The major coal-producing states in India are:
- Jharkhand: Jharkhand is the largest coal-producing state in India, accounting for more than 25% of the total production.
- Chhattisgarh: Chhattisgarh is the second-largest coal-producing state in India, with major coalfields located in the Raigarh, Surguja, and Korba districts.
- Odisha: Odisha is another major coal-producing state in India, with coal reserves located in the Talcher and Ib Valley coalfields.
- West Bengal: West Bengal has coal reserves in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfields.